Secondary manifestations of joint hypermobility:
§ Dislocations, subluxations, and other soft tissue injuries likely result of trauma due to excessive joint movement, typically leads to acute pain and loss of function
§ Microtrauma typically not noticed as it occurs, but can predispose to pain or early joint degeneration over time.
o Chronic pain
§ Can be a long-term complication of JH
§ Hyperalgesia (increased pain sensitivity) suggested in patients
with EDS and chronic pain
• Could be a direct result of connective tissue defects
• Could be that a common biological mechanism gives rise to various forms of chronic pain, independent of the cause of joint disease
o Disturbed proprioception (sense of the relative position of parts of the body)
§ Mechanism of relationship to JH poorly understood.
o Other musculoskeletal traits
§ May be the result of interactions of “soft” musculoskeletal tissues with mechanical forces during growth.
§ Include flat feet, elbows, feet, and toes angled outward (valgus deformity), spinal curvature